Complete animal
Tail ganglia

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Cell type

Connections have at least

Chemical synapses:
Gap junctions:

Network layout



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  1. Sensory neuron
  2. Interneuron
  3. Motor neuron
  4. Modulatory
  5. Muscle
  6. Other
  1. Acetylcholine
  2. Dopamine
  3. GABA
  4. Glutamate
  5. Octopamine
  6. Serotonin
  7. Tyramine
  8. Unknown
  9. Non-neuronal
  1. Chemical synapse
  2. Gap junction
  1. Stable
  2. Variable
  3. Developmentally dynamic (added)
  4. Developmentally dynamic (pruned)
  5. Post-embryonic
  6. Not classified
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Until then, have a look at this cell on WormAtlas and WormBase.

Data sources

White et al., 1986, compilation

This dataset is a compilation of multiple partially overlapping animals. The cells making up the somatic nervous system were reconstructed by White et al., 1986 and compiled by Varshney et al., 2011. The cells making up the pharyngeal nervous systems were reconstructed by Albertson and Thomson, 1976 and cleaned up by Nikhil Bhatla, developer of Non-neuronal cells were not annotated individually but are grouped by cell type (e.g. Body wall muscles).

Witvliet et al., 2020, datasets 1-8

Chemical synapses for all eight datasets were acquired from Witvliet et al., 2020. Chemical synapes were annotated independently by three annotators and only chemical synapses that at least two annotators agreed to were included in the final dataset. Gap junctions were not thoroughly annotated but have been provided by the authors for anyone interested. The gap junction annotation is by no means exhaustive, and should not be treated as such.

White et al., 1986, JSH and N2U

The two datasets were reconstructed by White et al., 1986 and compiled by Durbin, 1987. Individual muscle cells were not annotated by White et al., 1986. To allow comparison to other datasets, individual muscle cells (and synapses onto them) were annotated in scans of the original EM micrographs by the Zhen Lab. These synapses have been added to the datasets instead of the originally listed anonymous neuromuscular junctions.

White et al., 1986, JSE

The dataset was reconstructed by White et al., 1986 and compiled by Hall and Russell, 1991.

Types of connections

Connections were classified by their change in synapse number across developmental stages by Witvliet et al., 2020.

Stable connections

Present from birth to adulthood.

Developmentally dynamic connections

Significantly increase or decrease their relative strength in a stereotyped manner, sometimes even forming new connections or eliminating existing connections at specific life stages.

Variable connections

Exhibit no consistent trend in their changing synapse numbers, and are not present in every animal.

Post-embryonic connections

Are formed between neurons that are born or differentiate after birth.

Not classified connections

Were not found in any of the datasets reconstructed by Witvliet et al., 2020. Likely a gap junction or variable connection.

Download data

Witvliet et al., 2020

Dataset 1 (L1 brain)
Dataset 2 (L1 brain)
Dataset 3 (L1 brain)
Dataset 4 (L1 brain)
Dataset 5 (L2 brain)
Dataset 6 (L3 brain)
Dataset 7 (adult brain)
Dataset 8 (adult brain)

White et al., 1986

JSH (L4 brain)
N2U (adult brain)
JSE (adult tail)
Whole-animal compilation (data added by Varshey et al., 2011)

Cite us

If you use NemaNode, please cite Witvliet et al., 2020.

In addition, please cite the original data sources for the datasets you are examining.


To contribute, fork us on GitHub and submit a pull request.

Contact us

NemaNode is developed by the Zhen and Samuel labs.

To report a bug or feature request, open a new issue on GitHub. There you can also see, follow, and comment on known bugs and feature requests.

Alternatively, send us an email.